First: The ‘Eed Prayer consists of two Rak’ahs (units of prayer). Ibn ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “The traveller’s prayer consists of two Rak’ahs; the Al-Adh-haa (‘Eed) prayer consists of two Rak’ahs and the Al-Fitr (‘Eed) prayer consists of two Rak’ahs. They are complete prayers (in this form) and not shortened, and (we took this) from the tongue of the Prophet .”
Second: The first Rak’ah begins with the Takbeer (saying: ‘Allahu Akbar’ (Allah is the Greatest)) as is the case with all other prayers. Then the Imaam (followed by the praying Muslims) recites seven Takbeerat (the plural of Takbeer). In the second Rak’ah, there are five Takbeerat other than the transmission Takbeer (i.e., the one recited when the Imaam and the praying Muslims stand up to perform the second Rak’ah). ‘Aa’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said: “The Prophet would recite Takbeer in (the prayers of ‘Eed) Al-Fitr and Al-Adh-haa; he would recite seven Takbeerat in the first (Rak’ah) and five in the second one, aside from the two Takbeerat that precede the Rukoo’ (bowing).”
Imaam Al-Bahawi said: “It is the opinion of most of the well-versed scholars from among the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them all, as well as those who followed them, that there are seven Takbeerat in the first Rak’ah of the ‘Eed prayer other than the first Takbeer (Takbeeratul-Ihraam), and five Takbeerat in the second Rak’ah other than the transmission Takbeer, and all this precedes reciting (verses from the Noble Quran); this was narrated from Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and ‘Ali, may Allah be pleased with them.”
Third: It is not affirmed that the Prophet would raise his hands with every Takbeer, but Imaam Ibn Al-Qayyim said: “Though Ibn ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, was a great follower of the prophetic Sunnah, his understanding and action was to raise his hands when reciting the Takbeerat.”
Shaykh Al-Albaani said in his book entitled Tamaam Al-Minnah: “Although it was narrated that Ibn ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, did so (i.e., raising the hands when reciting Takbeer) it does not mean it is a prophetic Sunnah, not to mention the fact that the narration about ‘Umar and his son , may Allah be pleased with them,(doing so) is inauthentic. As for ‘Umar’s narration, Al-Bayhaqi narrated it through a weak chain of narrators, and as for his son’s narration (Ibn ‘Umar), I have not yet found a chain of narrators for it.”
However, Shaykh Al-Albaani also said in his book entitled Ahkaam Al-Janaa’iz regarding a point very close to the one under discussion: “He who believes that he (i.e., Ibn ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with them,) used not to do that (i.e., raising his hands when reciting Takbeer) except with the Prophet’s approval, then he may do it.”
Fourth: Nothing was affirmed concerning any remembrance between the ‘Eed Takbeerat from the Prophet but it was narrated (through a good chain of narrators) from Ibn Mas‘ood,, may Allah be pleased with them, that he said about the ‘Eed prayer: “Between every two Takbeerat there is praising of Allah the Almighty and celebration of His Attributes.”
Imaam Ibn Al-Qayyim said: “He would keep silent between every two Takbeerat for a short period, but nothing is affirmed of him reciting any supplication between them.”
Fifth: When the Prophet was done with the Takbeerat, he would recite Chapter Al-Faatihah (the opening chapter of the Quran) and then recite Chapter ‘Qaaf’ in the first Rak’ah and Chapter Al-Qamar in the second.
Sometimes, he would recite Chapter Al-A’alaa in the first Rak’ah, and Chapter Al-Ghaashiyah in the second one.
Imaam Ibn Al-Qayyim said: “These two cases were affirmed from the Prophet and nothing else.
Sixth: The rest of the acts of the ‘Eed prayer are as those of any other prayer; nothing is different.
Seventh: Whoever misses the ‘Eed prayer with the congregation can (optionally) offer a two Rak’ah prayer instead.
Imaam Al-Bukhari said: “Whoever misses the ‘Eed prayer may (optionally) offer a two Rak’ah prayer.”
Al-Haafith Ibn Hajar said commenting on this point of Imaam Al-Bukhari : “Regarding this point, there are two rulings:
A. Making up the ‘Eed prayer is recommended if it was missed with the congregation, regardless of whether it was missed willingly or otherwise.
B. It is a two Rak’ah prayer: ‘Ataa’ said: “Whoever missed the ‘Eed (prayer) could offer another two Rak’ah prayer (instead).”
Eighth: Reciting the Takbeeraat (in the ‘Eed prayer) is a Sunnah (i.e., a recommended deed) which, if missed intentionally or out of forgetfulness, does not nullify the prayer, and this issue is agreed upon by the scholars. However, the one who leaves it is, undoubtedly, contradicting the Sunnah of the Prophet .
The Sermon after the Prayer:
It is from the prophetic Sunnah that the ‘Eed sermon should follow the ‘Eed prayer. Imaam Al-Bukhari named one of the chapters of his Book: “The Chapter of the Sermon After the ‘Eed Prayer.” Ibn ‘Abbaas, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “I offered the ‘Eed prayer with Allah’s Messenger as well as Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and ‘Uthmaan, and all of them, may Allah pleased with them, offered the ‘Eed prayer before delivering its Khutbah (religious sermon).”
Ibn ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “The Prophet Abu Bakr, and ‘Umar used to offer the (‘Eed) prayers before delivering its khutbah.”
Source: The rulings of the two ‘Eeds, by ‘Ali Hasan Al-Athary